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Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity, and Environment and Sustainable Development (Environment and Sustainable Development Division)

Conventions

What are Multilateral Environmental Agreements

 

 

What are Multilateral Environmental Agreements?

Multilateral Environmental Agreementsadopted by Mauritius

Multilateral Environmental Agreements under the Ministry of Environment, Sustainable Development, Disaster and Beach Management  

 

 
  1. What areMultilateral Environmental Agreements?  

The Earth system has observed various changes due to increasing human pressures.   These changes have negative impacts on the life-support functions of the planet and on human well-being.  Many countries are faced with global environmental problems and they have agreed to take joint actions to address the impacts.

One of the method adopted by countries to work together on global environmental issues are through international agreements known as Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEAs).

A multilateral environmental agreement (MEA) is an agreement between three or more states relating to the environment. They are produced by the United Nations which represent the 197 countries in the world.

The Terms Conventions and Protocols are also used to refer to MEAs:-

·        A Convention gives a framework on the agreement. 

·        Protocols are negotiated and concluded for specific targets or obligations which are required to meet the objective of the convention

Several important MEAs were adopted after the 1992 Earth Summit which is the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.The world community needs to come together for a global solution for a global environmental problem.

 

 As a Small Island Developing States (SIDS), Mauritius has a fragile ecosystem and is increasingly faced with global crisis namely climate change, loss of biodiversity, poor management of toxic chemicals and hazardous waste, marine pollution.  In view of the magnitude of the global challenges and with limited technical and financial resources, Mauritius has joined the world community to address global environmental problems in a concerted manner. Some 36 multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs)related to chemicals, biodiversity, marine and atmosphere have been signed by Mauritius. 

The 36 MEAs were clustered into 5 main groups namely:


                   ·         Atmosphere-related MEAs

                   ·         Biodiversity-related MEAs

                   ·         Chemical -related MEAs

                   ·         Marine-related MEAs

                   ·         Other MEAs


 The 36 MEAs have been concluded at different period of time and they have different signatory/ratification dates.  Moreover, these MEAs have entered into force at different dates.  Details on these MEAs on the date of entry into force, the ratification statusas well as links to access further information from the MEAs Secretariat and convention text have been compiled.

After signing the MEA, Mauritius become a member to the convention/protocol and is invited by the Secretariat to participate in international conferences.  During the last two decades, Mauritius has been actively negotiating for issues in the interest of Mauritius, SIDS and Africa group.  As a result, Mauritius has among other developing countries, benefitted from funding from various sources including the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund, Adaptation Fund, Multilateral Fundto implement national action plans/programmes related to the respective MEAs.Mauritius is well-known for its key achievements in implementing the obligations of a number of MEAs; the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are a few examples.  At national level, different MEAs are implemented by different focal Ministries



The MOESD is the focal point (Ministry) for Conventions and Protocols as follows:


1.       United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

2.     Convention on the Protection, Management and Development of the marine and coastal environment of the Eastern African Region and related protocols (Nairobi Convention)

3.       United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC ) and;

4.       Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC

5.       Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and;

6.       Montreal Protocol under the Vienna Convention

7.       Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

8.       Minamata Convention on Mercury

9.       Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

10.   Bamako convention on the ban of the import into Africa and the control of transboundary movement and management of hazardous wastes within Africa



Besides being the focal point and the lead executing Ministry for the above MEAs, the Ministry of Environment has the coordinating role for the implementation of the 35MEAs under the MEAs Coordinating Committee.  The latter Committeewas set up under the Environment Protection Act, in 2008.  The objective is to ensure a high level co-ordination on the implementation of the MEAs.


The Ministry of Environment is in consultation withthe focal Ministries to followprogress on the implementation status of the MEAs.   The relevant focal Ministry may be contacted for details on the respective MEA.

 

 
    List of the Multilateral Environmental Agreements signed by Mauritius
          

 Atmosphere-related MEAs

1.       United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and;

2.       Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC;

3.       Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and;

4.       Montreal Protocol under the Vienna Convention;

5.    Statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

 

 

Biodiversity-related MEAs

6.       African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers Convention);

7.       Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES);

8.       Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD);

9.       Bonn Convention on Migratory Species (CMS);

10.      African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA), the largest agreement under CMS;

11.      United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD);

12.      Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety;

13.      International Plant Protection Convention;

14.   Convention on Wetlands of International importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (RAMSAR)

 

                  


 Chemicals-related MEAs

15      Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants;

16      Basel Conv​ention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes  and their disposal ; Ban Amendment to the Basel Convention;

17.       Rotterdam Conventionon the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals in International Trade;

18.       Bamako convention on the ban of the import into Africa and the control of transboundary movement and management of hazardous wastes within Africa;

19.       Minamata Convention on Mercury;

20.       Chemical Weapons Convention;

21.   The Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (SAICM).

 

                 


 Marine-related MEAs

22.       Convention on the High Seas;

23.       Convention on the Continental Shelf;

24.       Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas;

25.       Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone;

26.       Convention on the prevention of pollution from Ships of 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78);

27.    Convention on the Protection, Management and Development of the marine and coastal environment of the Eastern African Region and related protocols (Nairobi Convention);

28.       1992 Civil Liability Convention CLC and Fund Convention;

29.       Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker oil pollution;

30.       Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) 1971 and Protocol of 1976;

31.       Agreement on the Organization for Indian Ocean Marine Affairs;

32.       Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC);

33.       Protocol on preparedness, response and cooperation to pollution incidents by hazardous and Noxious Substances,  - (OPRC-HNS Protocol );

34.       Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity

 

 

              

 Other MEAs

            35.       Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

          36.     Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

             

 
     
  Details on the Date of Entry into Force, Ratification status and Focal Ministry  
       
 

Cluster

MEAs

Entry into force

Ratification status

Focal Ministry

Atmosphere-related

1.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Paris Agreement on climate change

March 1994

 

Ratified[1] in Sep 1992

 

Ratified in  April 2016

M/Environment & Sustainable Development, Disaster & BM

 

2.Kyoto Protocol

Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

February 2005

Ratified in May 2001

Accepted in Sep 2013

3. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

September 1988

Acceded[2] in Aug 1992

4. Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone

January 1989

Acceded in Oct 1992

5. Statute of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

July 2010

Ratified in 2009

M/ Energy and Public Utilities

Biodiversity-related

1.African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers Convention)

June  1969

 

Signed[3] in Sep 1968

 

M/ Ocean Economy, Marine Resources, Fisheries, Shipping & Outer Islands

2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

July 1975

Ratified in April 1975

M/ Agro Industry & Food Security

3. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

December 1993

Ratified in September 1992

4. Bonn Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)

November 1999

Ratified in January2001

5. Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety

 September 2003

 

Acceded in April 2002

Cluster

MEAs

Entry into force

Ratification status

Focal Ministry

Biodiversity-related

6. International Plant Protection Convention (1971) ;Revised text (1990)

October  2005

 Acceded in June 1971

M/ Agro Industry & Food Security

7. Convention on Wetlands of International importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (RAMSAR 1971)

September 2001

Ratified in May 2001

8. African-Eurasian Water-bird Agreement (AEWA)

November 1999

Signed in September 2002

9. International Plant Protection Convention (1971) ;Revised text (1990)

October  2005

 Acceded in June 1971

10. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

December 1996

Ratified in January 1996

M/Environment & Sustainable Development, Disaster & BM

 

Chemical-related

1. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

May 2004

Ratified in July 2004

2. Minamata Convention on Mercury

90 days after ratification by at least 50 states

Signed  in October 2013

3.Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Ban Amendment to the Basel Convention

May 1992

Ratified in November 1992

Signed in November 2004

4. Bamako convention on the ban of the import into Africa and the control of trans-boundary movement and management of hazardous wastes within Africa (1991)

  April 1998

Ratified in October 1992

5.Rotterdam Convention

February  2004

Acceded in August   2005

M/Health & Quality of Life

6. The Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (SAICM)

February 2006

 Adopted in February 2006

7. Chemical Weapons Convention

 

April 1997

Ratified in  February  1993

Prime Minister’s Office

Cluster

MEAs

Entry into force

Ratification status

Focal Ministry

Marine-related

 

1. Convention on the High Seas (1958)

September 1962

Succeeded in October 1970

M/Ocean Economy, Marine Resources, Fisheries, Shipping & Outer Islands

2. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 1958

March 1966

3. Convention on the prevention of pollution from Ships of 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)

July 1995/ October 1983

Acceded in April 1995

4. 1992 Civil Liability Convention CLC and Fund Convention

December 2000

Acceded in December 2000

M/Ocean Economy, Marine Resources, Fisheries, Shipping & Outer Islands

5. Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker oil pollution, 2001

November 2008

Acceded in  October 2013

6. Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) 1971 and Protocol of 1976

June 1975

Acceded in  April 1999

7. Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) adopted in 1983

March 1996

Signed in November 1993

8. Protocol on preparedness, response and cooperation to pollution incidents by hazardous and Noxious Substances,2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol)

June 2007

Acceded in  Oct 2013

9. Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity

1998

Adopted in 1998

10. Agreement on the Organization for Indian Ocean Marine Affairs

September 1990

Ratified In July 1992

Prime Minister’s Office

 

11. Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone 1958

September 1964

Succeeded in October 1970

12.Convention on the Protection, Management and Development of the marine and coastal environment of the Eastern African Region and related protocols (Nairobi Convention 1985)

May 1996

Acceded in July 2000

M/Environment & Sustainable Development, Disaster & BM

Other environmental-related

1. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques 1977

October 1978

Acceded in Sept 1992

Prime Minister’s Office

2.Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1972

December 1975

Ratified in September 1995

M/Arts & Culture

 

[1] Ratification: A country first signs a convention and then ratifies it.

[2] Acceded: It is an act that is not preceded by a signature.  The country accepts to adopt the convention which has been negotiated and signed by other countries.

[3] Signature: Preliminary endorsement of a convention.  There is no legal binding commitment on the country


 
  Details on the Date of Entry into Force, Ratification status and Focal Ministry​  
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